Swedish Mammography Cohort - SMC

The SMC is a multidisciplinary longitudinal project on the association of lifestyle and genetic factors with morbidity and mortality in middle-aged and elderly women. This large population-based prospective cohort was established in 1987 in central Sweden.

Between 1987 and 1990, all women born between 1914 and 1948 who lived in the Uppsala County and in the adjacent Västmanland County, both in central Sweden, received an invitation by mail to participate in a mammography screening program. The invitation included a six-page questionnaire that sought information on diet and alcohol intake (67-item FFQ), parity, age at first childbirth, family history of breast cancer, weight, height, education level, and marital status. A total of 66,651 women returned a completed questionnaire (74% response rate).

In 1997 a second questionnaire was sent to all cohort members who were still living in the study area. The aim was to update the information about diet. The questionnaire was extended to include information on physical activity, medical history, age at menarche, history of oral contraceptive use, age at menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking history and use of dietary supplements (70% response rate).

All cohort members who had completed the 1987 FFQ (n=48,263) received a third questionnaire in 2008 (response rate 63%). The 2008 Health questionnaire collected information on general health status, disease diagnoses, current body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, dental health, medication use, sleep habits, urine and bowel habits, family history of selected diseases, stress, and social support.

To cohort members who completed the 2008 Health questionnaire a fourth questionnaire was sent in 2009 (84% response rate). The 2009 Lifestyle questionnaire collected information on diet (132-item FFQ), dietary supplements, smoking, physical activity, and sun habits.